A Planetary Health Approach to Study Links Between Pollution and Human Health
The purpose of this review is to provide an understanding of the links between pollution and human health, pollution andplanetary health, and planetary health and human health from the perspective of the anthropogenic activities that have had themost significant impact on these relationships including food pollution, transportation, and electricity production-related pollu-tion, consumerism-related pollution, and agriculture-related pollution. The literature tells us that most pollution is being driven byanthropogenic activities used to sustain our species, our economies, and our consumption-based lifestyles. These activities andtheir subsequent pollution are driving at least eight of the nine planetary boundaries and are having profound impacts on bothhuman and planetary health to the peril of the survival of many species including our own. Given that the two core planetaryboundaries, climate change and biodiversity loss, have been crossed, and that the IPCC 2018 report calls for emissions reductionsof 45% from 2010 levels by 2030, reaching net zero around 2050 to limit global warming to 1.5 °C, it would seem that avoidingcatastrophe and meeting the basic needs of the global populace will require nothing less than a rapid reduction of fossilhydrocarbon use in addition to a drastic reduction in ruminant meat consumption. Further research is needed, however, the urgency of the current planetary state requires action and, therefore, applied and outcomes research of initiatives that addressthese issues.